By Paul Seddon
Racist maltreatment directed astatine achromatic England footballers has intensified calls for stronger enactment to stamp retired hatred online.
Marcus Rashford, Bukayo Saka and Jadon Sancho were targeted aft they missed penalties successful the Euro 2020 final.
The authorities has promised its Online Safety Bill volition bash much to unit societal media companies to act.
The maltreatment has besides prompted questions astir what much tin beryllium done elsewhere too.
What astir transgression prosecutions?
There is already authorities successful spot successful the UK that tin beryllium utilized to prosecute maltreatment online.
In England and Wales, online maltreatment is covered by 2 main connection laws dating from 1988 and 2003.
The Law Commission, which is reviewing those laws connected behalf of the government, says they are ill-suited to the modern quality of net abuse.
It adds that different avenue for prosecution - nether nationalist bid laws - presents "real challenges" arsenic they were not designed to use online.
England manager Gareth Southgate besides says a batch of the maltreatment received by his players comes from abroad, which makes things adjacent much difficult.
Prosecuting abusers based extracurricular the UK poses ineligible problems, and tin marque it overmuch much hard and time-consuming for constabulary to stitchery evidence.
And the Commission cautions that the constricted resources of constabulary and prosecutors marque it intolerable to woody with each maltreatment done the justness system.
The authorities says it volition look astatine the Commission's last recommendations erstwhile it reports backmost aboriginal this year.
Banning fans from games
Since Sunday's match, adjacent to a cardinal radical person signed an online petition calling for tougher rules to prohibition abusers from attending games.
And ex-FA president and Labour adjacent Lord Triesman has called for a "one onslaught and they're out" attack to deter radical against posting abusive contented online.
Courts tin prohibition fans from attending games successful the UK for betwixt 3 and 10 years for offences including convulsive and drunken behaviour astatine games oregon adjacent the ground.
The authorities tin besides unit UK-based fans to manus implicit their passport to constabulary during matches oregon tournaments overseas.
But though bans tin beryllium enforced for racist chanting, the existent instrumentality successful this country - passed implicit 20 years agone - does not screen bans for maltreatment online.
Some clubs person besides enforced bans of their own aft fans person been recovered blameworthy of sending racist maltreatment online.
Another thought that has occasionally been suggested to woody with online maltreatment is done court-ordered behaviour orders.
A scope of Criminal Behaviour Orders - which replaced former Anti-social Behaviour Orders oregon 'Asbos' - tin beryllium utilized to restrict the behaviour of individuals.
Some person argued that prosecutors could widen their guidance to beforehand greater usage of restrictions connected net usage for abusers.
In a 2015 report connected anti-Semitism, a radical of MPs besides suggested prevention orders restricting intersexual offenders from utilizing the net could beryllium extended for hatred transgression offences.
Removing maltreatment posted online
Facebook, which besides owns Instagram, said it had "quickly removed comments" directed astatine players connected its platforms.
Twitter said that it had taken down implicit 1,000 tweets directed towards England players successful 24 hours, and permanently suspended a "number of accounts".
The steadfast said this happened aft reviews from quality moderators, arsenic good arsenic automated technology.
Social media companies are liable for taking contented down, and are nether unit bash much successful this area.
The authorities argues its Online Safety Bill volition code this, by giving ministers and regulators greater powers implicit firms, which up until present person been mostly self-regulating.
Ofcom, the assemblage that regulates accepted broadcasters, volition beryllium capable to contented fines of up to £18m oregon 10% of planetary turnover, whichever is higher, if firms neglect to comply with the caller rules.
It would besides summation the powerfulness to artifact entree to sites successful the UK.
Does the measure bash enough?
The authorities has faced disapproval astatine the clip taken for the Online Safety Bill - archetypal conceived by Theresa May's authorities successful April 201 - to travel to fruition.
Although a draft version has been published, it is inactive undergoing archetypal scrutiny from MPs and others and is yet to commencement its travel into law.
The bill's transition done Parliament is besides apt to beryllium analyzable by concerns that immoderate of its provisions could harm state of speech.
Labour says it volition propulsion to present transgression sanctions for elder executives astatine tech companies who neglect to enforce rules connected abuse.
And determination has been disapproval the measure doesn't bash capable to prevent maltreatment from anonymous users, who are much hard to place and punish.
Some person suggested radical should person to supply ID earlier they are capable to unfastened an account.
But the authorities has rejected this, arguing it would "disproportionately impact" users specified young radical exploring their intersexual individuality and victims of abuse, who trust connected anonymity to support their identity.
It said firms would person to halt "repeat offenders" from opening caller accounts successful bid to conscionable their caller work of care.